Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (2023)

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Author links open overlay panelAmirMostafaeiaPersonEnvelopeAmy M.ElliottbEnvelopeJohn E.BarnescdFangzhouLieWendaTaneCorson L.CramerbPeeyushNandwanafMarkusChmielusgPersonEnvelope

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Abstract

As a non-beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) method, binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) is a process in which a liquid binder is jetted on layers of powdered materials, selectively joined, and then followed by densification process. Among AM technologies, binder jetting holds distinctive promise because of the possibility of rapid production of complex structures to achieve isotropic properties in the 3D printed samples. By taking advantage of traditional powder metallurgy, BJ3DP machines can produce prototypes in which material properties and surface finish are similar to those attained with traditional powder metallurgy. Various powdered materials have been 3D printed, but a typical challenge during BJ3DP is developing printing and post-processing methods that maximize part performance. Therefore, a detailed review of the physical processes during 3D printing and the fundamental science of densification after sintering and post–heat treatment steps are provided to understand the microstructural evolution and properties of binder jetted parts. Furthermore, to determine the effects of the binder jetting process on metallurgical properties, the role of powder characteristics (e.g., morphology, mean size, distribution), printing process parameters (e.g., layer thickness, print orientation, binder saturation, print speed, drying time), sintering (e.g., temperature, holding time), and post-processing are discussed. With the development of AM technologies and the need for post-processing in 3D printed parts, understanding the microstructural evolution during densification is necessary and here, processing steps are explained. Finally, opportunities for future advancement are addressed.

Keywords

Additive manufacturing

Indirect 3D printing

Sintering

Infiltration

Powder bed

Powder characteristics

Binder

Print processing parameters

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Post-processing

Materials selection

Metal

Ceramic

Composite

Cited by (0)

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (4)

Dr. Amir Mostafaei is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Materials, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, since January 2020, with a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA, a post-doc research fellow at the Manufacturing Futures Initiatives (MFI) Center at Carnegie Mellon University between September 2018 and December 2019 and an M.Sc. degree in Corrosion and Materials Protection (Sahand University of Technology, Iran). His Ph.D. research was primary on binder jet 3D printing of structural, bio-compatible, metal matrix composites and magnetic shape memory alloys. Effects of print processing optimization during binder jetting as well as post-processing development including sintering and surface treatment of the 3D printed parts were investigated on the microstructural evolution, phase formation, and resulting properties of binder jetted parts.Additionally, he has been working on laser powder bed fusion of metallic materials and evaluation of the processing parameters on the microstructure, porosity distribution, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of various additive manufactured parts from titanium, aluminum, stainless steel, and nickel-based alloys. Dr. Mostafaei has published literature in high temperature corrosion and failure analysis of stainless steels and nickel-based superalloys used in petroleum and nuclear power plants, multi-functional organic coatings, welding metallurgy, and nanomaterials fabrication. Finally,Dr. Mostafaei’s research mainly focuses on applying fundamentalaspects of materials science and engineering to address the demands of various manufacturing industries via additive manufacturing.

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (5)

Dr. Amy Elliott got her BS from Tennessee Technological University and her Ph.D. is from Virginia Polytechnic and State University, both Mechanical Engineering. She served as the PI for Binder Jet Additive Manufacturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) since 2014, leading over $4M in research in printed metal powder densification, modeling, and printing along with binder development. As part of her role at the MDF, Dr. Elliott meets with people in industry around the world to consult on the proper application of binder jetting technology in manufacturing. Dr. Elliott’s current areas of focus include materials development for binder jetting of heat exchangers in harsh environments, binder development for metal powders, computational modeling of sintering distortion, and development of new metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites for use in mining and fossil extraction, heat exchange, armor, and neutron collimation.

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (6)

Dr. John Barnes is the Founder of The Barnes Group Advisors and was Vice President of Advanced Manufacturing & Strategy at Arconic, where he worked with Airbus to qualify the first titanium additively manufactured parts for series production on the A350. Prior to Arconic, he was Director of the High-Performance Metals Program for the CSIRO, the national science agency for Australia where he oversaw the R&D and commercialization activities and investments in the program’s two principal areas: metal production and additive manufacturing. His aerospace background includes lengthy positions at Honeywell Engines, where he supported gas turbine advanced technology and was program manager of Marine Engines programs and as senior manager for Manufacturing Exploration and Development at Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. At Lockheed Martin, he was responsible for developments in advanced polymers, composites, carbon nanotubes, novel titanium production and processing, additive manufacturing of both polymer and metallic systems, and low observable manufacturing methods. John has 12 patents issued or pending and has given numerous invited presentations is published internationally. In 2014, he was awarded Purdue University’s Outstanding Materials Engineer of the Year and was given an Adjunct professorship at RMIT. In 2017, the faculty of Carnegie Mellon University appointed him an Adjunct Professor of Materials Engineering. John holds a BS in materials science and engineering and an MS in metallurgical engineering from Purdue University.

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (7)

Fangzhou Li is a PhD student in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Utah. He currently works in the Laboratory of Laser-based Manufacturing and focuses his research on the computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction in various additive manufacturing process, including binder jetting, laser powder bed fusion, and directed energy deposition. Prior to this, he worked in the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-Walled Structures from 2016 to 2018, where he investigated the process-microstructure-property relationship in the novel metallic bump-assisted resistance spot welding and the magnetic assisted resistance spot welding technologies. He received his BS and MS degrees in mechanical engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

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Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (8)

Dr. Wenda Tan is an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Utah. He is also the director of the Laboratory of Laser-based Manufacturing. His major expertise lies in the areas of computational heat transfer, computational fluid mechanics, and computational materials. He takes advantage of such expertise to investigate the fundamental science regarding the process-microstructure-property relationship in various manufacturing processes, such as additive manufacturing, welding and joining, and casting. He received his BS and MS degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Tsinghua University, China, and his PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University. He also received the prestigious CAREER award of National Science Foundation in 2018.

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (9)

Dr. Corson L. Cramer went to Michigan Technological University for my BS in mechanical engineering and Colorado State University for M.Sc. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering. He is a post-doctoral research associate in the Binder Jet Additive Manufacturing Team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) Manufacturing Demonstration Facility since 2017, where he has led projects on ceramics, ceramic composites, and metal-ceramic composites. He has published literature in powder processing, thin-film processing, ceramics, semiconductors, and thermoelectrics. He has several patent disclosures filed since working at ORNL. Dr. Cramer’s current areas of research include ceramic and composite materials development for binder jetting, development of new metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites, processing of ceramics, and novel processing and printing of ceramic materials. He is a member of SME and ACERS.

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (10)

Dr. Peeyush Nandwana got his Bachelor of Technology at Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, India (Metallurgical and Materials Science and Engineering), M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of North Texas (Materials Science and Engineering). He is a research staff member at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility since 2014. He has worked on various additive manufacturing technologies such as powder bed electron beam melting, laser powder bed fusion, laser wire deposition, and binder jet additive manufacturing of various materials such as titanium alloys, nickel-based superalloys, and steels. Dr. Nandwana leads the effort on densification of tool steels and other monolithic alloys deposited via binder jet additive manufacturing with a focus on materials characterization and mechanical behavior. Furthermore, Dr. Nandwana leads the effort on developing hot isostatic pressing cycles for additive manufacturing materials to improve mechanical properties such as fatigue strength for these materials. Dr. Nandwana’s research focuses on applying materials science fundamentals to address the demands of various manufacturing industries via additive manufacturing.

Binder jet 3D printing—Process parameters, materials, properties, modeling, and challenges (11)

Dr. Markus Chmielus is an associate professor in the Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Department since September 2013, with a PhD in materials science and engineering from the Technical University of Berlin and the Helmholtz Center for Materials and Energy, Germany, a post-doc at Cornell University (2010 to 2013) and MS degrees in aerospace engineering (University of Stuttgart, Germany) and materials science and engineering (Boise State University). Dr. Chmielus’s Advanced Manufacturing and Magnetic Materials Laboratory performs research on functional and structural metals on the influence of production and processing parameters on the properties and microstructure. The lab focuses on additive manufacturing of metals and especially binder jet printing and the influence of post-processing on microstructural evolution and properties. The secondresearch area is fundamental research, manufacturing, and applications of functional, magnetic materials such as Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloys and magnetocaloric materials, especially the aspect of using additive manufacturing as a new avenue to produce these materials. A main interest is the understanding of microstructural evolution during printing and post-processing and how different additive manufacturing methods and processing affect the functional properties of functional magnetic materials. The overarching umbrella of all research activities is quantitative characterization of microstructure, defects, mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties on different length scales using local, national, and international facilities, including synchrotron and neutron diffraction and collaborations.

This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the US government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for US government purposes. DOE will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).

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© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

FAQs

What is binder jetting process? ›

Binder jetting is an additive manufacturing process in which an industrial printhead selectively deposits a liquid binding agent onto a thin layer of powder particles — foundry sand, ceramics, metal or composites — to build high-value and one-of-a-kind parts and tooling.

What are the 5 steps of 3D printing? ›

There are five stages to 3D printing:
  • Modelling in CAD.
  • Generating an STL or 3MF file.
  • Slicing.
  • Printing.
  • Post-processing.
6 Sept 2021

What are the 3 main steps in the 3D printing process? ›

Generally speaking, to print a model through 3D printing needs to go through the following four steps: modeling, slicing, printing, and post-processing.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of binder jetting? ›

As with all additive manufacturing methods, binder jetting has very low levels of material wastage and low energy use compared to conventional manufacturing methods. However, the speed and high volume production possible with binder jetting reduces the carbon footprint further.

What materials are used in binder jetting? ›

The materials commonly used in Binder Jetting are metals, sand, and ceramics that come in a granular form.

How accurate is binder jetting? ›

Binder jetting also allows for complex geometries, doesn't require support structures, and has a dimensional accuracy of ± 0.2 mm.

Can you 3D print a helmet? ›

Downloading a 3D model

There are plenty of downloadable files for helmets available online that other 3D printing enthusiasts have shared. These files usually come in the form of an STL file or OBJ file that you can use with your favorite 3D printing slicer. The most popular sites to get them from are: Thingiverse.

How do you 3D print in blender? ›

3D Printing for Blender Users in 4 Minutes, Beginner Tutorial - YouTube

How do I print 3D photos? ›

To generate a 3D model convert your picture into a Lithophane, there are options available: Cura, or Image to Lithophane. Once your model is generated, you will have to slice your model. In order to slice the model, you will have to choose a slicing software, to create a layer and guide your 3D printer.

What are 2 main types of filament? ›

Although there is a wide range of filament types a 3D printer can handle, ABS and PLA plastics are by far the most popular. These two plastics are readily available in a staggering amount of colors, even glow-in-the-dark!

What type of data does 3D printing use? ›

STL is the most common file format when 3D printing. STL stands for STereolithography and . STL files consist of facet data.

How many types of 3D printers are there? ›

3D Printer Types: There are three main types of 3D printers, Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM), Stereolithography and Stereo Laser Sintering (SLS).

What is the main design limitation for material extrusion? ›

Disadvantages: The nozzle radius limits and reduces the final quality. Accuracy and speed are low when compared to other processes and accuracy of the final model is limited to material nozzle thickness. Constant pressure of material is required in order to increase quality of finish.

What is an advantage associated with material jetting? ›

Advantages of Material Jetting

The metal particles being jetted are nanoscale and the resulting layer thickness is extremely thin as compared to other additive technologies. These ultra-thin layers produce very high-resolution parts where the layers are nearly invisible to the human eye.

Does binder jetting use heat? ›

FAQ. Does Binder Jetting use heat or lasers in the build process? Binder Jetting is unique in that it does not use heat to cure parts, so avoids the warping and residual stresses that can be caused by heat. Build chambers are often heated, but not to the level that a conventional 3D printer would see.

What is the print speed in binders jetting process? ›

On the other hand, the printed layers with printing speed of 300 mm/sec exhibit a positive dimensional difference of 0.11 mm along the printing direction compared to the layers fabricated with 200 mm/sec printing speed, indicating the influence of printing speed on droplet spreading dynamics after impact.

Which technology is used in binder jetting? ›

The technology is often referred to as 3DP technology and is copyrighted under this name. Powder material is spread over the build platform using a roller. The print head deposits the binder adhesive on top of the powder where required. The build platform is lowered by the model's layer thickness.

How fast is material jetting? ›

Binder jetting deposits a small portion of the material. This allows for print speeds up to 1.1 inches per hour regardless of object size, shape or number.

What is the difference between material jetting and binder jetting? ›

Both material jetting and binder jetting use the same type of printhead technology – but while binder jetting deposits liquid adhesive onto another substrate, material jetting deposits the build-materials that make up the final part and its support structures.

Is binder jetting sustainable? ›

Binder-jetting provides a faster, more scalable solution when compared with other 3D printing technologies, making it the most sustainable 3D printing solution for industrial applications.

How do you scale a 3D print? ›

How to Resize / Rescale 3D Models - YouTube

How tall is the Ender 3? ›

Official Creality Ender 3 Pro DIY Printer with Removable Magnetic Bed 3D Printer 220x220x250mm.

How do you paint a 3D printed helmet? ›

  1. Step 1: 3d Printing the Helmet. ...
  2. Step 2: Removing the Supports and Coating It With Resin. ...
  3. Step 3: Adding the First Coat of Filler Primer and Putty. ...
  4. Step 4: Wet Sanding and More Filler Primer. ...
  5. Step 5: Spot Putty and More Wet Sanding. ...
  6. Step 6: Finally Spraying the First Base Primer and Base Coat. ...
  7. Step 7: More Painting!

Can you use Blender on iPad? ›

Blender is not available for iPad but there are plenty of alternatives with similar functionality. The best iPad alternative is Shapr3D, which is free. If that doesn't suit you, our users have ranked more than 100 alternatives to Blender and 11 are available for iPad so hopefully you can find a suitable replacement.

How do you animate in Blender 3D? ›

Animation for Beginners! (Blender Tutorial) - YouTube

Is learning Blender hard? ›

Blender is quite challenging to learn since it is complex with many tools and operations, but users may typically begin getting comfortable with the software after a few weeks. However, proficiency in Blender will take years of experience.

How do you make a 3D face out of a picture? ›

2D IMAGE TO 3D AVATAR BUILDER! - YouTube

How do you make a 2D image 3D in blender? ›

Use Blender to Convert Images to 3D printable models! - YouTube

How do you make a 2D picture 3D? ›

3D Model From 2D Image or Drawing
  1. Step 1: Draw Your Image (or Download It) Using a black marker, draw something relatively simple. An animal works well. ...
  2. Step 2: Convert It to . SVG. ...
  3. Step 3: Turn Your Image 3D Using 123D Design. If you do not have 123D Design, download it here. ...
  4. Step 4: Export . stl for 3D Printing.

How long does 3D filament last? ›

Nevertheless, based on the range of 40 to 168 (24/7) hours per week, we can say a heavy printer uses between 320 and 1,345 g of filament per week (or 45 to 190 g per day). At these rates, a spool will last from 5 to 22 days, or roughly 1 to 3 weeks.

What happens when you leave PLA filament out for too long? ›

Leaving filaments loaded for a long amount of time will result in them turning brittle and producing low-quality objects, especially if they are hygroscopic (absorbs moisture).

Can you 3D print colors? ›

FDM 3D printers can print in a single color, using colored filament, in two colors, using a dual extruder, or in multiple colors and gradients using color mixing, depending on how many filaments feed through the printer simultaneously.

How does a 3D printer transform data? ›

The scanner works by making a copy of the object and then putting it into a 3D modeling program. Then the design is converted into a digital file that slices the model into hundreds or thousands of layers.

How do 3D printers process data? ›

The process works by melting plastic filament that is deposited, via a heated extruder, a layer at a time, onto a build platform according to the 3D data supplied to the printer. Each layer hardens as it is deposited and bonds to the previous layer.

What is the input and output of a 3D printer? ›

A 3D printer is a computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) device that creates three-dimensional objects. Like a traditional printer, a 3D printer receives digital data from a computer as input. However, instead of printing the output on paper, a 3D printer builds a three-dimensional model out of a custom material.

What are the 3 main types of 3D printing? ›

There are several types of 3D printing, which include: Stereolithography (SLA) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

What are the 4 most common types of 3D printing? ›

Lots of 3D printers use PBF technology. The most common types of printers are selective laser sintering ( SLS), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser melting (SLM), HP's Multi Jet Fusion ( MJF), high-speed sintering (HSS) and electron beam melting (EBM).

What type of 3D printing is the fastest? ›

The fastest 3D printing technologies include Multi Jet Fusion and resin 3D printing technologies like MSLA. Resin 3D printing technologies are known for being faster than FDM.

What are the factors affecting of the extrusion process? ›

Factors that affect the quality of extrusion are die design, extrusion ratio, billet temperature, lubrication, and extrusion speed.

How accurate is material jetting? ›

An ultra-smooth finished part printed in different colours within the same build. Firstly, the most obvious advantage of material jetting is that it has the highest dimensional accuracy of any mainstream process (with a dimensional tolerance as low as ± 0.1% and a lower limit of ± 0.05 mm).

What are the characteristics of material jetting? ›

Material jetting can produce smooth parts with surfaces comparable to injection molding and very high dimensional accuracy. Parts created with Material Jetting have homogeneous mechanical and thermal properties. The multi-material capabilities of MJ enables the creation of accurate visual and haptic prototypes.

Does material jetting require post processing? ›

Like stereolithography, material jetting requires post-processing steps. Indeed, the printing supports are obligatory and must therefore be removed once the machine has stopped. Furthermore, since the resins used are photosensitive, they will degrade if exposed to light.

What are the disadvantages of binder jetting? ›

The main problems associated with binder jetting are accuracy and tolerance, which can be difficult to predict as a result of part shrinkage during post processing steps. For example, metal parts can shrink by up to 2% for smaller items and by more than 3% for larger items as a result of infiltration.

What is the strongest material to 3D print? ›

Polycarbonate. One of the strongest FDM 3D printing materials — in terms of both tensile[1] and impact strength — is polycarbonate (PC). In fact, polycarbonate filament would likely be one of the most popular printing materials were it not so difficult to print.

What materials can be used in material jetting? ›

Materials used in Material Jetting

Today, the two most commonly used materials for Material Jetting are photopolymers (in liquid form) and casting wax. Stratasys and 3D Systems are two of the most recognisable Material Jetting specialists on the market, offering a range of photo-curable plastics and composites.

What is material jetting process? ›

Material Jetting builds objects in a similar method to a two dimensional ink jet printer. Multiple materials can be used in one process and the material can be changed during the build stage. Material is jetted onto the build platform surface in droplets, which are formed using an oscillating nozzle.

Where is binder jetting used? ›

Binder Jetting is used in a variety of applications -- including the manufacturing of full-color prototypes, large sand-casting cores and molds on the plastic/ceramic side and small, functional parts on the metal side.

What is the difference between material jetting and binder jetting? ›

Both material jetting and binder jetting use the same type of printhead technology – but while binder jetting deposits liquid adhesive onto another substrate, material jetting deposits the build-materials that make up the final part and its support structures.

Which technology is used in binder jetting? ›

Binder Jetting technology works by using a print head to apply a liquid binding agent onto layers of powder: A thin layer of powder is distributed onto the build platform of the binder jetting machine.

How accurate is material jetting? ›

An ultra-smooth finished part printed in different colours within the same build. Firstly, the most obvious advantage of material jetting is that it has the highest dimensional accuracy of any mainstream process (with a dimensional tolerance as low as ± 0.1% and a lower limit of ± 0.05 mm).

How fast is material jetting? ›

Binder jetting deposits a small portion of the material. This allows for print speeds up to 1.1 inches per hour regardless of object size, shape or number.

What is the main design limitation for material extrusion? ›

Disadvantages: The nozzle radius limits and reduces the final quality. Accuracy and speed are low when compared to other processes and accuracy of the final model is limited to material nozzle thickness. Constant pressure of material is required in order to increase quality of finish.

What are the two categories separated for binder jetting? ›

The binder jetting process uses two materials; a powder based material and a binder. The binder acts as an adhesive between powder layers. The binder is usually in liquid form and the build material in powder form.

What is an advantage associated with material jetting? ›

Advantages of Material Jetting

The metal particles being jetted are nanoscale and the resulting layer thickness is extremely thin as compared to other additive technologies. These ultra-thin layers produce very high-resolution parts where the layers are nearly invisible to the human eye.

What is a polymer binder? ›

In Li-ion battery fabrication, a polymer binder is needed to bind particles of active materials together to ensure sufficient electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and integrity of the electrodes.

Which of the following types of material does the material jetting technology use? ›

In material jetting, a printhead (similar to the printheads used for standard inkjet printing) dispenses droplets of a photosensitive material that solidifies under ultraviolet (UV) light, building a part layer-by-layer. The materials used in MJ are thermoset photopolymers (acrylics) that come in a liquid form.

What is the difference between powder bed fusion and Binder Jetting in terms of layer formation techniques? ›

Compared to Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) 3D printing techniques, the binder jetting method has the advantage of not employing heat during the build process, which prevents the creation of residual stresses in the parts.

How much does a material jetting 3D printer cost? ›

PolyJet 3D Printer Price

PolyJet 3D printers start at around $6,000, and can cost up to $75,000 for the higher spec models. This, coupled with material costs, makes Material Jetting an expensive 3D printing technology.

What is the print speed in binders jetting process? ›

On the other hand, the printed layers with printing speed of 300 mm/sec exhibit a positive dimensional difference of 0.11 mm along the printing direction compared to the layers fabricated with 200 mm/sec printing speed, indicating the influence of printing speed on droplet spreading dynamics after impact.

Is binder jetting sustainable? ›

Binder-jetting provides a faster, more scalable solution when compared with other 3D printing technologies, making it the most sustainable 3D printing solution for industrial applications.

Who invented binder jetting? ›

Professor Emanuel “Ely” Sachs, a pioneer of 3D printing, the inventor of binder jet printing, and a co-founder of Desktop Metal, a company committed to accelerating the transformation of manufacturing with end-to-end metal 3D printing solutions, has been inducted into TCT Group's Hall of Fame, as announced during the ...

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